This is the first sentence dealt to a Trump campaign affiliate in special counsel's Robert Mueller's probe into Russian interference in the Trump campaign.
In asking the court for leniency, Papadopoulos said he made "a bad mistake, for which I have paid a awful price, and am deeply ashamed", and that he was motivated to lie to the Federal Bureau of Investigation try to "create distance between the issue, myself, and the president".
The professor told Papadopoulos the Russians had "dirt" on Mr Trump's Democratic presidential rival Hillary Clinton in the form of "thousands of emails".
His lies about the timing of his encounter with the professor, including the false claim that it came before he'd joined the campaign, prevented investigators from effectively questioning Mifsud when he was in Washington in February 2017, prosecutors said in a court filing. Others pleading guilty in the Mueller probe include former National Security Adviser Michael Flynn and Washington lobbyist Sam Patten.
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As part of his sentence, Papadopoulos also will have one year of court supervision, 200 hours of community service and was fined $9,500.
US District Judge Randolph Moss said that Papadopoulos' deception was "not a noble lie" and that he had lied because he wanted a job in the Trump administration and didn't want to jeopardise that possibility by being tied to the Russian Federation investigation.
DNC lawyers wrote in court filings Friday that Joseph Mifsud, who spoke to Papadopoulos during the 2016 presidential election, "is missing and may be deceased", Bloomberg News reported.
Attorneys for Papadopoulos had sought to avoid prison, instead requesting probation.
The $28 million price tag cited by Mr. Trump is likely a reference to the cost of the Mueller probe.
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"Judge Randy Moss emphasized that there's "no reason to think the Federal Bureau of Investigation bamboozled" Papadopoulos, and he said his lies were not meant to boost Russian Federation but to serve his own self-interest of getting a job in the Trump White House".
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He later attempted to use his links to the professor and Russian nationals to attempt to set up a meeting between Trump and Russian President Vladimir Putin.
Before the sentence was read, Papadopoulos' defense attorney, Thomas Breen, pointed fingers at Trump.
"We were hoping for no jail time but two weeks is OK", Maria Stamatopoulos said. Overall, they say Papadopoulos did not provide "substantial assistance".
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Van der Zwaan, a Dutch lawyer who worked with Manafort and Gates, was also convicted of lying to prosecutors.