The attack - one of at least three that occurred in Afghanistan on Wednesday - targeted the Interior Ministry's compound a few hundred yards from Kabul's airport and a coalition air base where Americans and their allies train Afghan forces.
A spokesman for the ministry, Najib Danesh, said eight suicide bombers were involved in the attack, which began with a vehicle bombing outside the compound.
Six police officers were killed and eight civilians were wounded, provincial police spokesman Shapoor Ahmadzai said. All 10 attackers - three suicide bombers and seven gunmen - were killed by security forces, the Interior Ministry confirmed.
That facility was attacked in February by suicide bombers in ambulances who killed more than 100 people, many of them police officers.
The myriad attacks in the last 12 months included two of the deadliest in the city since the U.S. invasion: a truck bomb on May 31, 2017 that killed more than 150 people, and an ambulance bomb in January 27 this year which killed more than 100.
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"We broke their dream so that they will never try to attack military installations particularly the minister of interior", Danish said.
The Islamic State group claimed responsibility for the attack, but did not provide evidence for their claim.
It appeared to be a rare victory for Afghan security forces, who have struggled to secure the capital in recent months.
Both militant groups seek to establish strict Islamic rule in the country.
There have also been numerous attacks on government buildings and at police checkpoints.
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Later Wednesday, the American commander of US and coalition forces in Afghanistan cast doubt the attack was the work of IS, saying instead there are indications the Taliban-allied Haqqani network was behind it. All of the suspected Taliban fighters were killed or captured after they attempted to enter the government compound wearing outdated U.S. Army uniforms and driving a stolen Humvee.
It is estimated that about 15 million people - half the population - are living in areas that are either controlled by the Taliban or where the Taliban are openly present and regularly mount attacks.
The militants traded fire with security force before they were killed within minutes.
He said the attackers set off a suicide vehicle bomb at the entrance to the station before three suicide bombers tried to enter.
The Taliban dismissed the report as "propaganda" and said the attack had hit two civilian houses in Musa Qala, killing five civilians and wounding three. He said the victims included mechanics who had been contracted to fix Afghan army vehicles.
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